Part 2. The Flaw in E = mc2
The Special and General Theories of Relativity published in 1905 and 1915, many scientists believe, grew out of the unpredicted and then unexplainable results of the Michelson/Morley experiment conducted in 1887 measuring the speed of light in relation to the aether wind then believed to permeate space.
The unpredicted results indicated 1. There is no such wind and 2. that light while it travels through space or air or through any transparent medium apparently does not behave in a natural manner. That, in fact, it behaves in a metaphysical, paradoxical manner according to and explained by Albert Einstein eighteen years later in 1905.
Knowing the speed of light through air and space and knowing that Earth was moving at some specific unknown constant speed in itís orbit around the Sun (later determined to be approximately 18 miles per second) Michelson and Morley sent a beam of light through an interferometer or beam splitter, having one half reflected back and forth in Earthís orbital line, the other half reflected back and forth perpendicular to Earthís movement. Both halves then reflected back through the beam splitter in the opposite direction to impact at the same point on a registering plate. Then they rotated the device through 360 degrees of arc to find the forward direction of the aether wind.
The experiment predicted that the effect of the aether wind on the parallel traveling half would make it arrive ever so slightly later than the perpendicular traveling half causing an interference fringe on a registering plate (see Fig. 1). By measuring the width of the fringe they could then calculate the velocity of the aether wind
x = the speed of light
y = velocity aether wind
But the experiment was a failure as their instruments showed no such interference fringes or out of phase unlike the above diagram. The beams came back completely synchronized no matter the arc position which shocked and puzzled the scientific world of 1887 and for years afterwards as they searched for a logical, scientific explanation, an explanation that never came.
Without a rational explanation the door was wide open for a radical new theory published in 1905 and 1915, a theory that would transform the discipline of theoretical physics in itís entirety.
Albert Einstein argued that light moves at a fixed speed throughout the Universe while at the same time it does not move relative to any moving body. One of his examples is a hypothetical spaceship moving at 50% the speed of light. Light passing it in itís line of motion does not pass it at twice as fast but three times as fast while only traveling twice as fast. A paradox and the definition of c in E = mc2. In Fig. 2 below this is what happened in the Michelson/Morley experiment according to Albert Einstein:
x = speed of light
y = velocity of Earth
According to Tovi Sciences the following is the rational explanation that was so sought after over a century ago.
x = speed of light
y = velocity of Earth and it's gravitational field
According to The Natural Theory of Relativity there is a natural explanation for synchronization of the returning split beams.